Introduction to Raspberry Pi :
Raspberry Pi technically is Microprocessor indeed also known as A Mini /Pocket size computer. Its a very tiny size computer all you got do any thing.Basically made in a credit card size.It’s capable of doing everything you’d expect a desktop computer to do, from browsing the internet and playing high-definition video, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games.
Its a Single chip Computer that powered by (Generally) Quad core ARM A7 CPU and some Amount of RAM (512 MB or 1 GB). Also got Some USB ports Along with HDMI Socket . Its Able to run/operate on OS you wish via a SD card ( preferably Debian or Arch Linux ).
What’s more, the Raspberry Pi has the ability to interact with the outside world, and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations and tweeting birdhouses with infra-red cameras. We want to see the Raspberry Pi being used by kids all over the world to learn to program and understand how computers work.
ITS A AWESOME TOOL FOR HACKERS OR ALSO FOR ANY PROGRAMMER OR TECHIE
How its a Awesome tool ?
Its a very cheap Raspberry Pi zero can be made with a low cost of 5 $.
Its got all the features that one computer can give.
Its open source
Its a very small in size handy and can be portable.
Its got community to get in touch and learn.
Also it support many programming languages especially Python (main programming language here) also C, C++,Java, Perl, Ruby .
I think it pretty awesome for any robotic scientist , techie , researcher , programmer , hacker almost everybody can make it to do amazing things.
RASPBERRY PI FOUNDATION
The Raspberry Pi Foundation is a registered educational charity (registration number 1129409) based in the UK. Our Foundation’s goal is to advance the education of adults and children, particularly in the field of computers, computer science and related subjects. See our stories page for more information about the Foundation’s charitable work.
You can read more about the history of Raspberry Pi and the people who have helped to make it the success it is today on our about page.
Hardware structure of Pi :
The Soc used in the first generation Raspberry Pi is somewhat equivalent to the chip used in older smartphones (such as iPhone / 3G /3GS). The Raspberry Pi is based on the Broad-com BCM2835 system on a chip (SoC), which includes an 700 MHz ARM1176JZF-Sprocessor, VideoCore IV GPU, and RAM. It has a Level 1 cache of 16 KB and a Level 2 cache of 128 KB. The Level 2 cache is used primarily by the GPU. The SoC is stacked underneath the RAM chip, so only its edge is visible.
Single Printed-Circuit Board: no more, no less.
GPIO (General Pourpuse Input/Output) Pins: to connect to common electronics, e.g. to control the motors of a robot or make a LED clock.
RCA Composite Video: also known as a ‘phono connector’, useful for an analogue connection to an older TV set. The connector creates a composite of colours – red, green and blue – and sends them on a single wire to the TV. Use the HDMI connector for a better quality picture.
Audio Jack: to provide a stereo analog signal for headphones or powered speakers (3.5mm jack socket). You won’t need to use this jack if you use the HDMI connector as this is also sound capable.
Status Lights: they signify the following:
- ACT: SD card access
- PWR: 3.3 volt power
- FDX: full duplex (LAN)
- LNK: link activity (LAN)
- 100: 10/100 MB (LAN)
USB 2.0 sockets (x2): to plug a keyboard and a mouse. Use a USB hub to gain more USB sockets that you can use to connect an external hard disk, joystick or wireless adapter, and also to save wear and tear of the two USB sockets. You might have a keyboard and mouse with a PS/2 connector (a round plug with a borseshoe-sharped array of pins), these cannot be used with the Pi as it only offers USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports.
Ethernet Socket: to connect to the network. Use a RJ45 Ethernet patch to connect the Pi to a switch, router or hub. It supports 10/100 MB. You can also get your desktop/laptop talking to the Pi by connecting both with a patch cable; then configure your PC to bridge the wired Ethernet port or another (typically wireless) connection. For wireless networking you will need a USB wireless adapter:
- ensure that Linux is supported
- check the wifi network type listed on the specifications ( a number + a letter); e.g. if your network is 802.11a, an 802.11g adapter won’t work
- check the frequencies supported, an adapter designed to work with 2.4GHz network won’t connect to a 5GHz network
- most adapters support all encryptions: WEP is an old encryption type while WPA and WPA2 are newer ones.
CSI Connector Camera: still experimental, to connect the type of cameras used in smartphones.
HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) Video: for a high speed digital connection to a TV or monitor with sound included: one single cable to carry both the video and audio signals. By using the HDMI port your Pi will display at full HD 1920×1080 resolution. For monitors with only a VGA or a DVI (Digital Video Interconnect) connector buy a HDMI-to-VGA or HDMI-to-DVI adapter.
Hynix Memory Chip: a 256 MB RAM memory chip; below it you can find the Raspberry Pi processor.
Broadcom ARM Processor: a Broadcom’s ‘System on a Chip’ (SoC) multimedia processor to drive the Raspberry Pi. It is architectured to integrate several traditionally separate components onto a single chip: graphics and general purpose unit and audio and communications hardware. The ARM architecture is uncommon on desktop computers but perfect for mobile devices and the Raspberry Pi due to reduced instructions set (RISC) and low power draw. This means that the Pi is incompatible with traditional PC software which is built with a x86 structure architecture to work with processors like the AMD, , VIA and Intel. The processor runs at 700mhz.
Micro USB Power: to supply power to the Raspberry Pi. Plug a 5V micro-USB power supply, like the one used to charge lots of phones but make sure it supplies at least 700mA or your Pi will behave erratically.
SD Card Slot: to insert the SD (Secured Digital) card that contains the computer’s operative system and to store the files you create. This card is effectively your computer so if you put it in another Raspberry Pi all your stuff will be there. The SD card, which is a solid-stated storage system, needs to be at least 2GB and Class 4 or higher speed. Always check the SD card compatibility before buying one.
DSI Connector Display: for a video standard called Display Serial Interface (DSI) which is used for tablet and smartphones’ displays. The DSI display connects by inserting a ribbon cable into the matched connector on the Pi.
The first generation Raspberry Pi chip operated at 700 MHz by default and did not become hot enough to need a heat sink or special cooling, unless the chip was overclocked. The second generation runs at 900 MHz by default, and also does not become hot enough to need a heat sink or special cooling. Again overclocking may heat up the SoC more than usual.
Most Raspberry Pi chips could be overclocked to 800 MHz and some even higher to 1000 MHz. There are reports the second generation can be similarly overclocked, in extreme cases, even to 1500 MHz (discarding all safety features and over voltage limitations). In the Raspbian Linux distro the overclocking options on boot can be done by a software command running “sudo raspi-config” without voiding the warranty. In those cases the Pi automatically shuts the overclocking down in case the chip reaches 85 °C (185 °F), but it is possible to overrule automatic over voltage and overclocking settings (voiding the warranty). In that case, an appropriately sized heatsink is needed to keep the chip from heating up far above 85 °C.
Software Support :
The Raspberry Pi primarily uses Linux-kernel-based operating systems.The ARM11 chip at the heart of the Pi (first generation models) is based on version 6 of the ARM. The current release of Ubuntu supports the Raspberry Pi 2,while Ubuntu, and several popular versions of Linux, do not support the older Raspberry Pi 1 that runs on the ARM11. Raspberry Pi 2 can also run the Windows 10 IoT Core operating system,while no version of the Pi can run traditional Windows.The Raspberry Pi 2 currently also supports Raspbian, OpenELEC and RISC OS.
The install manager for the Raspberry Pi is NOOBS. The operating systems included with NOOBS are:
- Arch Linux ARM
- OSMC (formerly Raspbmc) and the Kodi open source digital media center
- Pidora (Fedora Remix)
- Puppy Linux
- RISC OS – is the operating system of the first ARM-based computer.
- Raspbian (recommended for Raspberry Pi 1)– is maintained independently of the Foundation; based on the Debian ARM hard-float (armhf) architecture port originally designed for ARMv7 and later processors (with Jazelle RCT/ThumbEE and VFPv3), compiled for the more limited ARMv6 instruction set of the Raspberry Pi 1. A minimum size of 4 GB SD card is required for the Raspbian images provided by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. There is a Pi Store for exchanging programs.
Raspberry Pi Variants:
Raspberry Pi 1 Model A
Raspberry Pi 1 Model A+
Raspberry Pi 1 Model B
Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+
Raspberry Pi 2 Model B
Raspberry Pi Zero
check All specification here
Also watch this for get everything clear: